Citation Policy

Citation Policy

The Allen Institute provides the Content on the Sites as free open resources as a public courtesy. Any term that is capitalized but is not defined in this Citation Policy is defined in the Terms of Use.

Unless otherwise noted, we own the copyright for, and reserve all rights to, all of the copyrightable Content on our Sites. We also own a number of trademarks that are on our Sites including the Allen Institute (logo and words), Allen Institute for Brain Science (logo and words), Allen Institute for Cell Science (logo and words), The Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group (logo), Allen, Brain Explorer and Fueling Discovery. Other trademarks appearing on our Sites are the property of their respective owners.

While we encourage you to use these resources for your research or other noncommercial purposes, we want to ensure that our Content is afforded proper citation as detailed below in all cases where it is used publicly. For clarification about commercial use restrictions, please read the Terms of Use.

If you are unsure about how to cite a source or would like written approval for a specific use that is otherwise prohibited, please send us a message.

Please send us a copy of your publication or other work citing these resources to This helps us track when and how our Content is being used, and thus guide and support our continued efforts to provide useful open public resources.

Citation Guidelines

If you cite or display any Content, or reference our organization, in any format, written or otherwise, including print or web publications, presentations, grant applications, websites, other online applications such as blogs, or other works, you must follow these Citation Guidelines.

If you use specific images or other data downloaded from the Sites, in addition to citing the Specific Atlas or other resource as indicated below, please cite the specific image or data used and the URL that links directly to that information in a manner that would allow a third party to navigate to that image or data on the Site.

General Guidance

Primary publication

In cases where there is a primary publication about the specific resource, cite both the publication and the specific Site. Citation of the primary publication is essential when citing the resource in a scientific publication. In cases where it is not feasible to cite the primary publication, and only in such cases, the Site citation is sufficient on its own.

Anatomic reference atlas content

When citing anatomic reference atlas content, use the citation for the specific resource of which the anatomic reference atlas content is a part. For example, when using the reference atlas content in the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas, cite the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas as the source (not the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Reference Atlas).

Integrating our data into a website

When integrating our data into a website, for example, using our Allen Brain Atlas application programming interface (API), cite the source in a manner that is clear, accurate and easily discoverable and link to the source atlas. Also, be sure that our Content is never displayed in the absence of such citation.

White paper or other document

When citing a white paper or other document associated with a particular resource, cite the specific document by title and date, as well as the Site for that atlas or resource.

Specific Citation Guidance


For images obtained from the Allen Institute website at, use the following citation:

Image credit: Allen Institute.

Universal Web Citation Format

Use the following general citation format for any Allen Institute resource accessed digitally through the Allen Institute’s website or Allen Institute GitHub.

© [[year of first publication]] Allen Institute for Brain Science. [Name of Allen Institute Resource]. Available from: [Resource URL]
© [[year of first publication]] Allen Institute for Cell Science. [Name of Allen Institute Resource]. Available from: [Resource URL]

© 2010 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available from:
© 2015 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project. Available from:
© 2015 Allen Institute for Brain Science. DiPDE Simulator. Available from:
© 2015 Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Brain Atlas API. Available from:
© 2016 Allen Institute for Cell Science. Project Overview. Available from:

Use the Universal Web Citation Format for reference to Allen Institute website versions of the following resources (year for citation is in parenthesis):

  • Aging, Dementia and TBI (2016)
  • Allen API (2015)
  • Allen Brain Observatory (2016)
  • Allen Cell Types Database (2015)
  • Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas (2008)
  • Allen Human Brain Atlas (2010)
  • Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (2004)
  • Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas (2011)
  • Allen Spinal Cord Atlas (2008)
  • Allen SDK (2015)
  • BrainSpan Atlas of the Developing Human Brain (2010)
  • Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project (2015)
  • Mouse Diversity Study (2009)
  • NIH Blueprint Non-Human Primate (NHP) Atlas (2009)
  • Sleep Study (2007)
  • Visual Behavior - 2P (2021)
  • Allen Institute resources available through GitHub (use year indicated on the resource)
  • Any other online Allen Institute resources (use year indicated on the resource)

Primary Publication Citations for Allen Institute resources

Aging, Dementia and TBI Study
Miller J.A. et al. (2017) Neuropathological and transcriptomic characteristics of the aged brain, Elife 6 doi: 10.7554/eLife.31126

Allen Human Brain Atlas
Hawrylycz, M.J. et al. (2012) An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human transcriptome, Nature 489: 391-399. doi:10.1038/nature11405

Allen Mouse Brain Atlas
Lein, E.S. et al. (2007) Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain, Nature 445: 168-176. doi:10.1038/nature05453

Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas
Oh, S.W. et al. (2014) A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain, Nature 508: 207-214. doi:10.1038/nature13186

Allen Brain Observatory
de Vries, S.E.J., Lecoq, J.A., Buice, M.A. et al. A large-scale standardized physiological survey reveals functional organization of the mouse visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 23, 138–151 (2020).

BrainSpan Atlas of the Developing Human Brain
Miller, J.A. et al. (2014) Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain, Nature 508: 199-206. doi:10.1038/nature13185

Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project
Puchalski R.B. et al.  (2018) An anatomic transcriptional atlas of human glioblastoma, Science 360(6389):660-663 doi:10.1126/science.aaf2666

Mouse Diversity Study
Morris, J.A. et al. (2010) Divergent and nonuniform gene expression patterns in mouse brainProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(44):1049-19054

Siegle, J.H., Jia, X., Durand, S. et al. Survey of spiking in the mouse visual system reveals functional hierarchy. Nature 592, 86–92 (2021).

Sleep Study
Thompson, C.L. et al. (2010) Molecular and anatomical signatures of sleep deprivation in the mouse brainFrontiers in Neuroscience Vol. 4, Article 165. doi:10.3389/fnins.2010.00165